改革后托福考试体验与分析——阅读篇
新航道小编华南总校小编 发布于 2019-12-13 「名师博文」 阅读(
文/ 新航道广州学校 刘慧

今年的托福可以说是有很多的变动,先是宣布MyBest Scores 拼分政策,紧接着在8 月就进行了
考试内容的大改革,其中主要的变化是阅读题目数量减少,听力部分lecture 数量减少,口语任务减少。
ETS 的每一个举措似乎都在向考生发出这样的信号:“ 考试变轻松了,来报名吧! ” 可事实真的如此吗?
改革后已经有一大批的同学参加过考试了,看每场考试的回忆,都是众说纷纭,有说变容易了的,也有
说变难了的。为了更好地了解改革后考试体验到底如何,新航道的老师们报名参加了10 月19 号的这
场托福考试,本文会对阅读部分做一个详细的分析。

一. 阅读部分题目数量
阅读部分每篇的题目数量从14 减少到10,做题时间也相应缩短到18 分钟每篇,所以从精力消耗
的角度来看,确实会有轻松一点的感觉。如果平时做题的节奏还有阅读的速度都比较快,每篇文章大概
还能剩余一点时间进行检查。

二. 阅读部分题目类型

题目类型确实还是一如往常:细节,修辞目的,否定,推断,乃至词汇依旧会占到大多数,而之
前本来考察比例就较低的指代和最后的七选五表格分类题基本没有怎么考到。就拿我做到的三篇文章为
例,每篇文章考到了2 道词汇题,可以说是有点出乎意料,数量感人,本以为只会一篇一道。此外,
这三篇文章考到的词汇分别是:contribute to, based on, gradual, standard, set in motion, diffuse. 除了
diffuse,其他所有词汇都是非常非常基础的词汇,其他老师考到的词汇也是相对来说比较简单,比如
remote, single-handed 等等,所以平时大家在积累词汇的时候还是应该以一些基础常用词汇为主,顺
带再积累一些高级词汇。

此外,8.25 号那场有考生反馈所有的句子简化题都没有了,但10.19 号这场考试我的那套卷,三
篇文章考到了一道简化题,也有其他的老师反映基本上每篇文章都有一道简化题,或者是有两篇考到了。
到底简化题还会不会被考到,这件事还挺随机的,希望大家在备考过程中还是要cover 掉所有的题型。

三. 阅读部分题目难度

从难度上看,整场考试中个人(阅读老师)觉得阅读是最难的部分。很直观的一个感受就是平时
在练TPO 的时候,做到的那些直接根据题干就可定位到段落中个别句子的简单题少了很多。这次考到
的很多题目都是无法单靠个别句子读懂就能做出来,都需要结合文章主旨,段落大意以及上下文的理解,
定位的难度也有增加。

此外,选项中的陷阱答案也非常具有干扰性,需要仔细阅读文章,对比后才能发现,一旦粗心就
会做错。记得去年差不多的时候考过的一场托福考试,里面的阅读题确实没有这场考试这么难,很多题
都是一个萝卜一个坑在文章中很好找。还需要注意的是,最后一道总结题在做题时的策略可能需要同学
们稍稍调整。就拿我做到的最后一篇文章(Earth’s Atmosphere)为例,这篇文章在网上已经有了原题,
而且是改革之前就存在的题目。通过对比发现,之前的十四道题里,被删减的是两个词汇,以及最后两
个段落里面考到的细节。这样看来,ETS 在改题时也是做的有点简单粗暴,直接砍掉最后两个段落的
题目,感觉并没有对原有的题目进行仔细筛选后再进行删减。这样一来,最后两个段落根本就一道题都
没有出,所以在做最后一道题的时候,如果没有主动去理解这两个段落的信息,很有可能就会错选答案。
很多同学在做题的过程中会习惯先看题,通过题目来了解段落中心,这样的做题方式也未尝不可。
不过改革之后,可能就会像我考到的这篇文章,部分段落不出题,但是最后一题又需要用到这些段落的
中心。所以建议同学们,对于没有出题的段落,也应该阅读一下,结合文章主旨提取段落中心。
通过本场考试,我也发现,总结题的答案设置也比之前多了很多陷阱。单靠区分细节和主旨这样
的思路已经不能完全做对题了,六个选项里有一些错误选项其实都提到了一些段落的中心词,但是在一
些主体对象或者谓语动词,还有很细微的部分进行了替换,更改了原文的意思,会让人在做题的时候比
较纠结。这就要求大家在做题的时候得格外仔细。但同考场的其他老师的感受有所不同,阅读部分相对
常规。不过也确实是这样,考试系统会在题库里随机抽取不同的篇章组合成卷,其中的难易层次肯定会
有所不同。平时同学们在备考的过程中,符合基本解题思路的简单题一定要特别熟练,此外还需要对一
些相对来说难一点的题目,特别是不好定位的那些题,以及文章的框架结构,加强练习。
* 附阅读考试回忆
Passage 1 Orchid(重复2018.3.31 / 2019.6.15)
有一些orchid(兰花)的增加授粉概率的strategy,跟其他一般植物的不一样,不是通过释放
sweet nectar,而是释放出一种气味,跟female bees 的味道一样,可以骗过male bees,有一种
orchid 除了味道像以外,连样子都很像female bees.
这种气味的出现进化,可能是由一种植物表面的waxing waterproof 的物质,偶然mutate,然后发
现有这种欺骗pollinator 功能,被自然选择,留下来了.
文章的最后还提到了有一种蚜虫会把卵产在一种orchid 身上,因为这种orchid 表面的凸起看着很
像这种蚜虫的幼虫可以吃的东西,但实际幼虫都会饿死,用来加强说明orchid 的这种策略很energysaving.
Passage 2 Sogdian People and the Silk Road
文章讲到了Sogdian 这个民族的兴起,整个民族的特点就是特别注重商业的发展,对丝绸之路上
的亚洲欧洲的发展有着很重要的影响。他们的文字语言成为了丝绸之路上商人们通用的语言,不同国家文化的商人都可以用他们的语言进行交流。此外这个民族本身也很注重商业思维的培养,孩子在小的时候就会请到厉害的老师来给上课,进行训练。
丝绸之路上一些遗迹中发现,有很多的银器都是Sogdian 人制造的,他们的影响范围很大。有一
段的内容中讲到了这些商人在中国的发展,主要集中在中国的甘肃。对于这个民族影响的证据是考古学
家们发现了一些信件,其中有一封是妻子写给丈夫的。这让人们开始更多地了解到了这个民族的一些生
活和文化中的事情。该民族的聚集地人民很多,多到可以在当地的community 当中建立一个religious
center。
此外文章中也提到了这个民族的authority 受到了中国政府的官方认可。但在文章的最后提到了这
个民族衰弱的原因,一个是中国政府不再提供支持,另外一个是阿拉伯对该民族的入侵。
Passage 3 Earth’s Atmosphere
(找到原文及题目)
1. Earth’s atmosphere has changed through time. Compared to the Sun, whose composition is
representative of the raw materials from which Earth and other planets in our solar system formed,
Earth contains less of some volatile elements, such as nitrogen, argon, hydrogen, and helium. These
elements were lost when the envelope of gases, or primary atmosphere, which surrounded early
Earth was stripped away by the solar wind or by meteorite impacts, or both. Little by little, the planet
generated a new, secondary atmosphere by volcanic outgassing of volatile materials from its interior.
2. Volcanic outgassing continues to be the main process by which volatile materials are released
from Earth. Although it is now going on at a much slower rate. The main chemical constituent of
volcanic gases (as much as 97 percent of volume) is water vapor, with varying amounts of nitrogen,
carbon dioxide, and other gases. In fact, the total volume of volcanic gases released over the past
4 billion years or so is believed to account for the present composition of the atmosphere with one
important exception: oxygen. Earth had virtually no oxygen in its atmosphere more than 4 billion years
ago, but the atmosphere is now approximately 21 percent oxygen.
3. Traces of oxygen were probably generated in the early atmosphere by the breakdown of water
molecules into oxygen and hydrogen by ultraviolet light (a process called photodissociation). Although
this is an important process, it cannot begin to account for the present high levels of oxygen in the
atmosphere. Almost all of the free oxygen now in the atmosphere originated through photosynthesis,
the process whereby plants use light energy to induce carbon dioxide to react with water, producing
carbohydrates and oxygen.
4. Oxygen is a very reactive chemical, so at first most of the free oxygen produced by
photosynthesis was combined with iron in ocean water to form iron oxide-bearing minerals. The
evidence of the gradual transition from oxygen-poor to oxygen-rich water is preserved in seafloor
26
托福考试备考白皮书
sediments. The minerals in seafloor sedimentary rocks that are more than about 2.5 billion years
old contain reduced (oxygen-poor) iron compounds. In rocks that are less than 1.8 billion years
old, oxidized (oxygen-rich) compounds predominate. The sediments that were precipitated during
the transition contain alternating bands of red (oxidized iron) and black (reduced iron) minerals.
These rocks are called banded-iron formations. Because ocean water is in constant contact with the
atmosphere, and the two systems function together in a state of dynamic equilibrium, the transition
from an oxygen-poor to an oxygen-rich atmosphere also must have occurred during this period.
5. Along with the buildup of molecular oxygen (O2) came an eventual increase in ozone (O3)
levels in the atmosphere. (A) Because ozone filters out harmful ultraviolet radiation, this made it
possible for life to flourish in shallow water and finally on land. (B) This critical state in the evolution
of the atmosphere was reached between 1,100 and 542 million years ago. (C) Interestingly, the fossil
record shows an explosion of life forms 542 million years ago. (D)
6. Oxygen has continued to play a key role in the evolution and form of life. Over the last 200
million years, the concentration of oxygen has risen from 10 percent to as much as 25 percent of
the atmosphere, before settling (probably not permanently) at its current value of 21 percent. This
increase has benefited mammals, which are voracious oxygen consumers. Not only do we require
oxygen to fuel our high-energy, warm-blooded metabolism, our unique reproductive system demands
even more. An expectant mother’s used (venous) blood must still have enough oxygen in it to diffuse
through the placenta into her unborn child’s bloodstream. It would be very difficult for any mammal
species to survive in an atmosphere of only 10 percent oxygen.
7. Geologists cannot yet be certain why the atmospheric oxygen levels increased, but they
have a hypothesis. First, photosynthesis is only one part of the oxygen cycle. The cycle is completed
by decomposition, in which organic carbon combines with oxygen and forms carbon dioxide. But if
organic matter is buried as sediment before it fully decomposes, its carbon is no longer available
to react with the free oxygen. Thus there will be a net accumulation of carbon in sediments and of
oxygen in the atmosphere.
( 第1 段) 1. In paragraph 1, why does the author state that Earth has less nitrogen, argon,
hydrogen, and helium than the Sun?
A)To argue that these elements were once part of an early atmosphere, which disappeared.
B)To suggest that these elements were drawn into the Sun’s atmosphere.
C)To provide evidence that Earth’s original atmosphere came primarily from meteorites.
D)To support the claim that Earth’s atmosphere would have changed even more if it had
contained more volatile elements.
( 第2 段) 2. According to paragraph 2, the history of volcanic outgassing cannot explain which
of the following?

A)The lack of oxygen in the atmosphere 4 billion years ago.
B)The amount of water vapor in the atmosphere today.
C)The proportions of nitrogen and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere today.
D)The present abundance of oxygen in the atmosphere.
( 第2 段) 3. Paragraph 3 suggests which of the following about the process of
photodissociation?
A)It is more common today than it was in the early history of the atmosphere.
B)It is responsible for only a small amount of the oxygen in the atmosphere today.
C)It removes trace amounts of oxygen from the atmosphere.
D)It produces more free oxygen than photosynthesis does.
( 第4 段) 4. According to paragraph 4, what can be learned from the type of iron compounds in
seafloor rocks?
A)How the process of photosynthesis has changed over time
B)The level of oxygen in the water at a certain time in history
C)How levels of iron in ocean water decreased over time
D)The overall mineral content of the ocean water
( 第4 段) 5. According to paragraph 4, banded-iron formations are found in what kind of rocks?
A)Those that are more than 2.5 billion years old.
B)Those that do not contain oxidized compounds.
C)Those that are from a transitional period in terms of oxygen richness.
D)Those that are less than 1.8 billion years old.
6. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted
sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out
essential information.
A) Since the oceans and the atmosphere function together, the atmosphere must have become
oxygen rich during this period.
B) Because ocean water is in constant contact with the atmosphere, the two systems maintain a
dynamic equilibrium.
C) The transition to an oxygen-rich atmosphere could not have happened without constant
contact with the oceans.
D) Much of the oxygen in the oceans must have been pulled out of the atmosphere during this
period.
7. The word “gradual” in the passage is closest in meaning to
A) crucial
B) original

C) beneficial
D) slow
8. The word “diffuse” in the passage is closest in meaning to
A) spread
B) break
C) squeeze
D) speed
9. Look at the four squares that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the
passage.
The timing strongly suggests that atmospheric changes were responsible for this sudden
increase in new life.
Where would the sentence best fit?
10. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below.
Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important
ideas in the passage. Some answer choices do not belong in the summary because they express
ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage.
A) Over the last 4 billion years, outgassing destroyed Earth’s primary atmosphere of volatile
elements and replaced it with nonvolatile materials including carbon dioxide.
B) The small amount of oxygen in Earth’s early atmosphere was due to photodissociation and,
later, photosynthesis created free oxygen.
C) Mammals could not have survived without an oxygen-rich atmosphere, and land-based life
would not be possible without the ozone layer to filter solar radiation.
D) When oxygen levels in the ocean water reached a critical level about 542 million years ago,
life emerged in the oceans, as shown by sedimentary rocks.
E) Although they are currently at about 21 percent, oxygen levels will probably not always remain
this high.
F) The breakdown of organic matter removes free oxygen, but if this process is interrupted, extra
oxygen may accumulate in the atmosphere.
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