文/ 新航道广州学校 刘慧
今年的托福可以说是有很多的变动，先是宣布MyBest Scores 拼分政策，紧接着在8 月就进行了
ETS 的每一个举措似乎都在向考生发出这样的信号：“ 考试变轻松了，来报名吧！ ” 可事实真的如此吗？
说变难了的。为了更好地了解改革后考试体验到底如何，新航道的老师们报名参加了10 月19 号的这
阅读部分每篇的题目数量从14 减少到10，做题时间也相应缩短到18 分钟每篇，所以从精力消耗
这三篇文章考到的词汇分别是：contribute to, based on, gradual, standard, set in motion, diffuse. 除了
remote, single-handed 等等，所以平时大家在积累词汇的时候还是应该以一些基础常用词汇为主，顺
此外，8.25 号那场有考生反馈所有的句子简化题都没有了，但10.19 号这场考试我的那套卷，三
Passage 1 Orchid（重复2018.3.31 / 2019.6.15）
sweet nectar，而是释放出一种气味，跟female bees 的味道一样，可以骗过male bees，有一种
orchid 除了味道像以外，连样子都很像female bees.
这种气味的出现进化，可能是由一种植物表面的waxing waterproof 的物质，偶然mutate，然后发
文章的最后还提到了有一种蚜虫会把卵产在一种orchid 身上，因为这种orchid 表面的凸起看着很
Passage 2 Sogdian People and the Silk Road
Passage 3 Earth’s Atmosphere
1. Earth’s atmosphere has changed through time. Compared to the Sun, whose composition is
representative of the raw materials from which Earth and other planets in our solar system formed,
Earth contains less of some volatile elements, such as nitrogen, argon, hydrogen, and helium. These
elements were lost when the envelope of gases, or primary atmosphere, which surrounded early
Earth was stripped away by the solar wind or by meteorite impacts, or both. Little by little, the planet
generated a new, secondary atmosphere by volcanic outgassing of volatile materials from its interior.
2. Volcanic outgassing continues to be the main process by which volatile materials are released
from Earth. Although it is now going on at a much slower rate. The main chemical constituent of
volcanic gases (as much as 97 percent of volume) is water vapor, with varying amounts of nitrogen,
carbon dioxide, and other gases. In fact, the total volume of volcanic gases released over the past
4 billion years or so is believed to account for the present composition of the atmosphere with one
important exception: oxygen. Earth had virtually no oxygen in its atmosphere more than 4 billion years
ago, but the atmosphere is now approximately 21 percent oxygen.
3. Traces of oxygen were probably generated in the early atmosphere by the breakdown of water
molecules into oxygen and hydrogen by ultraviolet light (a process called photodissociation). Although
this is an important process, it cannot begin to account for the present high levels of oxygen in the
atmosphere. Almost all of the free oxygen now in the atmosphere originated through photosynthesis,
the process whereby plants use light energy to induce carbon dioxide to react with water, producing
carbohydrates and oxygen.
4. Oxygen is a very reactive chemical, so at first most of the free oxygen produced by
photosynthesis was combined with iron in ocean water to form iron oxide-bearing minerals. The
evidence of the gradual transition from oxygen-poor to oxygen-rich water is preserved in seafloor
sediments. The minerals in seafloor sedimentary rocks that are more than about 2.5 billion years
old contain reduced (oxygen-poor) iron compounds. In rocks that are less than 1.8 billion years
old, oxidized (oxygen-rich) compounds predominate. The sediments that were precipitated during
the transition contain alternating bands of red (oxidized iron) and black (reduced iron) minerals.
These rocks are called banded-iron formations. Because ocean water is in constant contact with the
atmosphere, and the two systems function together in a state of dynamic equilibrium, the transition
from an oxygen-poor to an oxygen-rich atmosphere also must have occurred during this period.
5. Along with the buildup of molecular oxygen (O2) came an eventual increase in ozone (O3)
levels in the atmosphere. (A) Because ozone filters out harmful ultraviolet radiation, this made it
possible for life to flourish in shallow water and finally on land. (B) This critical state in the evolution
of the atmosphere was reached between 1,100 and 542 million years ago. (C) Interestingly, the fossil
record shows an explosion of life forms 542 million years ago. (D)
6. Oxygen has continued to play a key role in the evolution and form of life. Over the last 200
million years, the concentration of oxygen has risen from 10 percent to as much as 25 percent of
the atmosphere, before settling (probably not permanently) at its current value of 21 percent. This
increase has benefited mammals, which are voracious oxygen consumers. Not only do we require
oxygen to fuel our high-energy, warm-blooded metabolism, our unique reproductive system demands
even more. An expectant mother’s used (venous) blood must still have enough oxygen in it to diffuse
through the placenta into her unborn child’s bloodstream. It would be very difficult for any mammal
species to survive in an atmosphere of only 10 percent oxygen.
7. Geologists cannot yet be certain why the atmospheric oxygen levels increased, but they
have a hypothesis. First, photosynthesis is only one part of the oxygen cycle. The cycle is completed
by decomposition, in which organic carbon combines with oxygen and forms carbon dioxide. But if
organic matter is buried as sediment before it fully decomposes, its carbon is no longer available
to react with the free oxygen. Thus there will be a net accumulation of carbon in sediments and of
oxygen in the atmosphere.
( 第1 段) 1. In paragraph 1, why does the author state that Earth has less nitrogen, argon,
hydrogen, and helium than the Sun?
A)To argue that these elements were once part of an early atmosphere, which disappeared.
B)To suggest that these elements were drawn into the Sun’s atmosphere.
C)To provide evidence that Earth’s original atmosphere came primarily from meteorites.
D)To support the claim that Earth’s atmosphere would have changed even more if it had
contained more volatile elements.
( 第2 段) 2. According to paragraph 2, the history of volcanic outgassing cannot explain which
of the following?
A)The lack of oxygen in the atmosphere 4 billion years ago.
B)The amount of water vapor in the atmosphere today.
C)The proportions of nitrogen and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere today.
D)The present abundance of oxygen in the atmosphere.
( 第2 段) 3. Paragraph 3 suggests which of the following about the process of
A)It is more common today than it was in the early history of the atmosphere.
B)It is responsible for only a small amount of the oxygen in the atmosphere today.
C)It removes trace amounts of oxygen from the atmosphere.
D)It produces more free oxygen than photosynthesis does.
( 第4 段) 4. According to paragraph 4, what can be learned from the type of iron compounds in
A)How the process of photosynthesis has changed over time
B)The level of oxygen in the water at a certain time in history
C)How levels of iron in ocean water decreased over time
D)The overall mineral content of the ocean water
( 第4 段) 5. According to paragraph 4, banded-iron formations are found in what kind of rocks?
A)Those that are more than 2.5 billion years old.
B)Those that do not contain oxidized compounds.
C)Those that are from a transitional period in terms of oxygen richness.
D)Those that are less than 1.8 billion years old.
6. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted
sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out
A) Since the oceans and the atmosphere function together, the atmosphere must have become
oxygen rich during this period.
B) Because ocean water is in constant contact with the atmosphere, the two systems maintain a
C) The transition to an oxygen-rich atmosphere could not have happened without constant
contact with the oceans.
D) Much of the oxygen in the oceans must have been pulled out of the atmosphere during this
7. The word “gradual” in the passage is closest in meaning to
8. The word “diffuse” in the passage is closest in meaning to
9. Look at the four squares that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the
The timing strongly suggests that atmospheric changes were responsible for this sudden
increase in new life.
Where would the sentence best fit?
10. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below.
Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important
ideas in the passage. Some answer choices do not belong in the summary because they express
ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage.
A) Over the last 4 billion years, outgassing destroyed Earth’s primary atmosphere of volatile
elements and replaced it with nonvolatile materials including carbon dioxide.
B) The small amount of oxygen in Earth’s early atmosphere was due to photodissociation and,
later, photosynthesis created free oxygen.
C) Mammals could not have survived without an oxygen-rich atmosphere, and land-based life
would not be possible without the ozone layer to filter solar radiation.
D) When oxygen levels in the ocean water reached a critical level about 542 million years ago,
life emerged in the oceans, as shown by sedimentary rocks.
E) Although they are currently at about 21 percent, oxygen levels will probably not always remain
F) The breakdown of organic matter removes free oxygen, but if this process is interrupted, extra
oxygen may accumulate in the atmosphere.