托福阅读如何利用词汇内容的逻辑关系来解题?
新航道小编华南总校小编 发布于 2020-06-02 「托福阅读」 阅读(

托福阅读词汇题主要是以考察考生的词汇量为主,但在解题的时候单靠词汇知识是不够的,我们还要学会运用一些技巧,今天新航道小编就给大家分享一下如何利用词汇内容的逻辑关系来解题。

除了集中强化地背单词之外,考生还应学会根据单词所在的上下文语境利用逻辑关系来推测单词的含义。在考试过程中,考生可以利用到的逻辑关系有并列关系,举例关系和转折关系。下面将依次举例进行说明。

1. 并列关系解答词汇题实例

如果两个句子成分之间是并列的关系,则它们的感情色彩应该相近,所描述的内容性质也相近。常见的表示并列关系的信号词有:and, both…and, as well as, also, similarly, equally, likewise等。

例题分析:

Paragraph 4: The ice shelf cores, with a total length of 215 meters (705 feet), were long enough to penetrate through glacial ice---which is formed from the compaction of snow and contains air bubbles---and to continue into the clear, bubble-free ice formed from seawater that freezes onto the bottom of the glacial ice. (OG Test 2 Green Icebergs)

4. The word penetrate in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. collect

B. pierce

C. melt

D. endure

解析

本句较长,破折号中的从句是对前面的glacial ice的修饰,可暂且忽略不看,因此由句子中的and可知,and前后的词penetrate和continue into是并列关系,continue into表达“进入”的含义,因此可对选项进行筛选,collect为“收集”,melt意为“溶解,融化”,endure意为“持续;容忍”,因此可推测出答案为B选项。B选项中的pierce为“渗透,渗入”的意思,与penetrate(渗透,穿透)同义。

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2. 举例关系解答词汇题实例

举例是对前面的观点进行论证和解释,因此例子与其论证对象的特质相一致。表示举例关系的信号词有for example/instance, such as, like, including等。

例题分析

Paragraph 8: People decide whether they will act aggressively or not on the basis of factors such as their experiences with aggression and their interpretation of other people's motives. Supporting evidence comes from research showing that aggressive people often distort other people's motives. For example, they assume that other people mean them harm when they do not.

10. The word “distort” in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. mistrust

B. misinterpret

C. criticize

D. resent

解析

后句中看到信号词for example, 则是举例子来论证前面的观点。后句意思为“他们认为别人想伤害自己,而事实并非如此”,可以看出是误解了别人的想法,那么前句的观点应当是“有攻击性的人经常误解别人的动机”,由此可以推测出distort为“误解,曲解”类似的含义,则选出正确答案B. misinterpret(曲解)。

3. 转折/对比关系解答词汇题实例

一个句子中出现了转折或对比关系时,则转折词前后的内容相反。表示转折关系的信号词有although, despite, in spite of, instead (of), while, on the contrary, conversely, rather than, however, but, whereas等。

例题分析

Paragraph 4: But when a new area is fueled by rain, the mammals migrate toward it in a set order to exploit it. The larger, less fastidious feeders, the zebras, move in first; the choosier, smaller wildebeests come later; and the smallest species of all, Thomson’s gazelle, arrives last.

10. The word fastidious in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. rapid

B. determined

C. flexible

D. demanding

本句中虽然没有明确的出现表对比的信号词,但是考生很容易发现the larger, less fastidious feeders, the zebras, move in first; the choosier, smaller wildebeests come later; 前后两句形成对比关系,其中larger与smaller互为反义词,则可推测出less fastidious与choosier同样互为反义词,则进一步推出fastidious与choosier应为近义词,choosier为“挑剔的”意思,所以选出正确答案D. demanding(苛求的),fastidious本身意为“挑剔的,吹毛求疵的”含义。

以上就是新航道小编给大家分享的托福阅读词汇题有哪些解题技巧,更多托福备考干货敬请关注华南新航道托福备考频道。

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